The woman, who appeared to be around age 40, was pronounced dead at the scene.
Police said the truck was driven by a man, who was not seriously injured.
The wreck occurred in an area of the roadway that does not have a designated crosswalk for pedestrians, investigators said.
The woman's death marked the second fatal pedestrian accident in Chapel Hill in the past week. On Thursday, Lisa Carolyn Moran, 20, of Scotland, was trying to cross a street, on the south campus of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, when a bus struck her.
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