The rescue happened at 405 East Greene St. just before 5 a.m.
When fire crews arrived, they found light smoke showing. A search of the house led them to the occupant, a young adult male, lying unconscious on the floor in the kitchen area. After carrying the man outside, they resuscitated him.
The man, who has not been identified, was airlifted to the UNC Jaycee Burn Center in Chapel Hill for treatment of burns to the upper chest.
Officials said the fire may have started on the stove.
Fifteen firefighters were involved in the operation.
"We're hoping he pulls through," said Battalion Commander Tracy Mosley of Wilson Fire/Rescue. "That's what we're here for."