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Question: I have a unusual question that I have searched the Internet and cannot find an answer. About a month ago in Rocky Mount we had tornado warnings it was very windy and the rain was hard and I thought my roof is going to fly off. Anyway I did have some damage to my roof and need to know the date in which that happened. — Tammy Weatherly

Answer: Based on the date you sent your question and the time frame you mentioned, we're pretty sure you're referring to a tornado warning that was issued at 5:39 PM on June 5, 2017. The warning was cancelled at 5:52 PM. While no tornado was observed or confirmed with the storm, there were strong gusts and heavy rain, as you mentioned, and there were storm reports in the warning area for flash flooding and also for a tree blown down onto a mobile home at Brook Valley Mobile Home park.
Jul. 22, 2017 | Tags: past weather, severe weather

Question: I'm trying to figure out the best time to mow my lawn today so that I'm mowing at the most comfortable / least humid time. The hourly forecast shows that from 11AM to 8PM the dew point will be steady at 72 degrees. However, relative humidity fluctuates from 64% at 11AM to 54% at 4PM. Am I better off mowing at 11AM (with a temperature of 86 degrees) or 4PM (with a temperature of 91). Or, with a steady 72 degree dew point, will it feel just as uncomfortable no matter what time of day I choose? Having just travelled home from Las Vegas where the 105 degree temperature and low humidity resulted in my not having a single drop of perspiration in my eyes, I realize that I much prefer high heat / low dew point to being coated in perspiration with little to no evaporation cooling me down. — Matthew Walter

Answer: You make a good point at how much different it can be dealing with heat in the absence of much humidity. On a day like the one you mentioned around here, you'd probably be best served looking at the combination of temperature and humidity, not just the humidity value. One way to approach that would be to take the forecast air temperature and the dew point (or relative humidity) and calculate the heat index at various points during the day. Whenever that is lowest may be the best time for cutting the grass or other strenuous activities. Of course, the choice can be complicated a bit by whether different times of day will put you in more direct sun or in shade, or whether there might be a strong breeze that helps a bit at some point in the day, so keep those factors in mind as well. There are any number of calculators on the web to estimate the heat index with temperature and either dew point or RH as humidity inputs. One example is at www.weather.gov/ffc/metcalc.
Jul. 21, 2017 | Tags: cool sites, heat, humidity/dew point, weather & health

Question: I have noticed over the last year or so that WRAL calls the Triangle Raleigh, Durham, Fayetteville. What happened to Chapel Hill? In any weather alert notification the counties of Alamance, Chatham, Durham are mentioned, NOT Orange. What's the deal? — David

Answer: We're a little surprised that you've gotten that perception. While Fayetteville is certainly a very important part of our viewing area, we don't consider that a part of the Triangle, which we continue to consider roughly the area bounded by Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill. As for weather alerts, those are generally based on watches, warnings or advisories issued by the National Weather Service, so the counties included will be those which they listed in the issued product. It may simply be that in some of the recent severe events, Orange County was fortunate to be missed by the most intense storms that warnings were issued for.
Jul. 20, 2017 | Tags: maps & codes, preparedness, severe weather

Question: Given that the shortest and longest days of the year (solstices) are when the sun is over the respective tropical meridian, it marks the beginning of winter or summer. It seems to me that the season would straddle the short and long days. Is my logic failed? — Aat

Answer: If we're interpreting your question correctly, your logic is exactly the reason we refer to both "traditional" or "astronomical" seasons, which are defined as starting with the solstices and the intervening equinoxes, and "meteorological" or "climatological" seasons, which align more so with the highest and lowest average temperatures for summer and winter, with the transition seasons falling in between. For mid-latitude regions like ours, this results in "meteorological summer" running from June 1st to August 31st, and "meteorological winter" from December 1st to the end of February. One could, in principle, adjust these even more finely into roughly three-month periods that start and end on dates that would vary some depending on latitude and regional topography, but that would probably become a fairly unwieldy source of additional confusion. We would guess that "meteorological" winter, spring, summer and fall probably correspond fairly closely to what you had in mind, and this definition tends to be used in keeping and referencing weather and climate records.
Jul. 19, 2017 | Tags: astronomy, general meteorology, maps & codes

Question: Outflow boundaries from storms...are these phenomena only recently detectable by our technology? — Tom Noffsinger

Answer: They have been well-known as a feature of thunderstorm structure and effects for quite a long time, but have become increasingly detectable through the decades. Once reasonably high-resolution visible satellite imagery became available in the late 1970s and early 1980s, outflow boundaries could clearly be seen on that imagery in the vicinity of thunderstorms, but the imagery itself was updated infrequently and had a considerable time lag. Most weather radar at the time, and into the late 1980s and early 1990s, was in the form of WSR-57 and WSR-74 National Weather Service instruments that produced about half the output power of the WSR-88D ("NEXRAD") Doppler radars that replaced them. The added power, and upgraded receiver sensitivity, of those radars (along with the power, sensitivity and shorter wavelength of privately owned radars like our DualDoppler 5000) have made the boundaries more routinely visible in the last 10-20 years. Because the outflow airmasses tend to be rather shallow, their boundaries are still seen mainly when they occur fairly close to a radar site, since the upwardly tilted radar beam can pass over top of them at greater distances from the transmitter.
Jul. 18, 2017 | Tags: general meteorology, thunderstorms, weather radar

Question: Hi! Is there a calendar online that shows when we last had rain; specific daily rainfall amounts for the area (instead of aggregate monthly or yearly data for the area (or less helpfully - the State))? Getting the right amount of water to my summer garden is tricky and being able to look back and determine how much water it needs would be helpful - relying on my memory alone is a faulty system. — Anonymous

Answer: There are a number of resources we can suggest, keeping in mind that rainfall can vary a good bit over a short distance. In terms of looking at specific dates and how much was received in rain gauges at individual stations, you can use the "Almanac" function of our web site to check a selected date - when you do that, the default is to show a single day's info for RDU. However, you can then change the view to "monthly," which will allow you to quickly scan a table of observations near the bottom of the page that includes daily precipitation observations for the entire month - you can also use the "Search for Another Location" box to change the observation site to another town. Another place to look for a fairly dense network of daily precipitation observations is the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail & Snow network, at www.cocorahs.org. Once you learn your way around the site a bit, you can get good localized history of recent precipitation for the region there. Another option is a National Weather Service Precipitation Analysis page that uses radar estimates of precipitation, adjusted to fit with rain gauge reports, to plot daily contours of precipitation that you can step through. The advantage here is that radar fills in some of the gaps between fixed observation sites. The page also allows you to view precipitation amounts summed over the past week, past month, past 90 days, etc, and to view how those amounts compare to normal. The address is water.weather.gov/precip/, and you might like to go to the "location" button, select "WFO," choose "Raleigh" and click on the county borders for a good view of our area.
Jul. 17, 2017 | Tags: cool sites, past weather, rain

Question: Why is it that when I'm looking at the live online radar, I'm seeing areas of blue in the Triangle area? Is that where the Doppler radar is reflecting off water or lakes? — James

Answer: When the Dual Doppler
5000 radar includes a display of some of the lowest reflectivity values (often shaded blue), which are good to have in picking up drizzle or light sprinkles, outflow boundaries from storms, and light snow in the winter, they can become rather enhanced when we have temperature and moisture profiles that are favorable for "anomalous propagation" that bends the radar beam down a bit and increases returns from the ground and from low altitude non-meteorological targets like dust, insects and birds. This is most noticeable when there is both a temperature inversion near the surface and a rapid decrease in humidity with increasing height. When you lapse the radar in these situations, you can often notice the ground returns staying in the same place or jumping around somewhat randomly, while precipitation echoes move along with steering winds. This time of year, you may also notice some movement with the low-level winds in the light, non-meteorological returns as they pick up on the concentrations of insects or dust.

Jul. 16, 2017 | Tags: weather radar, wral.com

Question: Where is the dew point forecast on this website? — Jimmy Pines

Answer: Dew point is included in the hourly forecast on our site. The one thing to note is that it isn't shown by default when you first access the hourly forecast section. Instead, once you do that, look for the "More Details" link just below the initial list of hourly information. Once you click that, you will see dew point, relative humidity and wind speed/direction added to the previous information for each forecast time.
Jul. 15, 2017 | Tags: humidity/dew point, wral.com

Question: The Capital Weather Gang blog for the Washington Post had an excellent write-up of the impact of the June 29 2012 derecho that led to severe damage in the D. C. metro area. The blogpost was on June 29 this year. Do you have any memories of the effects of the event on the Triangle area or NE North Carolina. I recall a pretty major thunderstorm around midnight in Raleigh with a lot of wind and damage to trees. — Dave Crotts

Answer: A derecho is a long-lived convective storm system that produces widespread reports of wind damage over a very large area, and the event of that day that stretched from the Ohio Valley across to the mid-Atlantic and northern parts of our state was certainly an impressive example. The core of that system and its most extreme effects (which led to nearly two dozen fatalities) was confined to areas north of our state, but the southern fringes of the system did produce intense winds that in some cases produced damage well south of the storms themselves. In our state, there were some 52 reports of wind damage, mainly in the form of trees and power lines down, that did include a number of reports around the Triangle, northeastern parts of the state, and also toward the northern Piedmont to our northwest. It was notable that the way in which winds spread south of the heaviest storms meant that some parts of our state had wind damage, but actually had no lightning and little or no rainfall. Less than .01" of rain fell, in fact, from around Greensboro to Durham to Rocky Mount and points south. There is a very good overview/summary of the entire derecho event available at www.spc.noaa.gov/misc/AbtDerechos/casepages/jun292012page.htm. Also, you can retrieve a zoom-able map with clickable storm reports by setting the red search box to that date on the State Climate Office's Local Storm Reports database page, at climate.ncsu.edu/lsrdb/index.php.
Jul. 14, 2017 | Tags: cool sites, past weather, severe weather, winds

Question: I'm somewhat of a severe weather lover and I've been watching Greg for 20 plus years. My question is, is there some kind of geothermal dome of some sort preventing severe storms from developing or even moving into the inner Beltline or downtown area? It seems more often than not that approaching storms split up and go north and south, no matter the track or direction of a large storm. — Jimmy H

Answer: We don't think this is likely the case. Although there can certainly be localized microclimate effects from terrain and land use, they tend to be a little less impactful when it comes to intense thunderstorms that can produce severe weather. Instead, you are likely noticing the fact that severe weather tends to affect rather small areas, and to impact any given location quite infrequently. Because of that, and the wide reporting of severe weather and the ready availability of radar displays that can make storms appear to cover a bit more area than they really do, especially when they are at greater distances from the radar site, there is a tendency to to take great note of storms that affect nearby areas and to feel that your particular area of interest is being left out. In addition, even for intense storms well represented by radar displays, the portion of the storms where winds or hail reaches severe levels can be quite localized. The result is that we get much the same question/comment from almost every part of our viewing area. To get some sense of a rough quantification on this, we took a look at local storm reports collected by the NWS over the ten year period 2007-2016 for Wake County. There were 222 such reports for Wake, which covers an 857 square mile area. "Inside the Beltline" takes up about 60 square miles (the entire Raleigh city limits encompasses about 144), or about 7 percent of Wake's area. During that time, there were 22 of the storm reports that came from inside the Beltline, or about 10 percent of the Wake County reports, not much out of line with the percent of Wake real estate covered by that part of the city. Of course, "downtown" is an even smaller target for any intense storms passing through the area, but in spite of this it was struck by a tornado that passed through its southeast quadrant on April 16, 2011.
Jul. 13, 2017 | Tags: past weather, severe weather

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